I understand what you are asking, but unfortunately the answer just isn’t that simple.
Two reasons for this: 1. AGD, WP, and SoS all matter (even if SoS matters most) and 2. these criteria are dynamic and the values change over the course of the season.
Last year they showed the individual game breakdowns on MyHockeyRankings and it gave a lot of insight into how much or how little a particular result affected things. Unfortunately, they removed that feature this year, so it’s hard to isolate a particular performance. The ratings are designed to be cumulative, so it really matters how a team plays over the course of the season. A single win or loss doesn’t move the equation a lot when we getthis late in the season. It matters how you do against opponents, but it also matters how your opponents do against other common opponents.
In theory there is a way to figure out a line or expected outcome of a particular game and compare that with the actual result, but I’m not mathematically inclined enough to figure this out.
Basically, a really good team is expected to beat a really bad team by a lot of goals. If this happens the good team gets credit for the goal differential and a bump in win percentage. However, their strength of schedule goes down after playing a bad team with a low rating. You also need to consider that goal differential is capped at 7 goals. Since SoS is the most important factor (about 95% as discussed above), its actually possible for a good team to lose more in SoS rating than they earn in AGD and WP from a win over a bad team.
Obviously, if you win all your games and beat everyone by a ton of goals (PSU, Aurora) the rankings sort themselves out and you have nothing to worry about. However, if you are a bubble team I see two ways to play things. You can schedule a bunch of easy games and run the score up so you get maximum AGD and WP points and make up for the loss in SoS (see Cincinnati). Or you can schedule mostly tough games that you will likely lose but get big time SoS points. If you can also run the score up on a few really bad teams throughout the season you can cancel out the losses in AGD and WP that you would get with a losing record (see Rowan). Given the cap on goal differential, I would rather have the SoS points.
I hope that helps a little.